The intercultural approach points to the recognition of the coexistence of cultural diversities in modern societies.  These different cultures are forced to coexist while showing respect towards their different approaches to the world, human rights and their rights as peoples. In terms of their development in a global environment, the concern about interculturality is linked to the increasing importance of diversity and identity issues, in the framework of development, which has gradually exceeded its sole dependency on variables linked to socioeconomic aspects.

These advances have led to the universalization of economic, social and cultural rights. From this perspective and principles, it becomes a legitimate imperative that indigenous and Afro-descendant communities are part, in an equalitarian way, of modern citizenship, which must be inclusive with particular ways of thinking and acting that define the identity of diverse regions. This identity is based on multiple and varied specific identities which, far from constituting a difficulty or a problem –as it has usually been considered–, contribute with many growth and development possibilities following intercultural integration and social cohesion (Bello and Rangel, 2002).

Furthermore, it is also relevant to mention the concepts of race and ethnicity, present in the discussion about interculturality, and which have to be especially taken into account when working with the Afro-descendant population. Indeed, the race concept was created to justify the phenotypical differences between human beings. This notion refers to the taxonomic division of humans based on their biological, morphological and physiological differences. Historically, we define race as the division of human groups according to remarkable physical features that can be differentiated on plain sight. The term has also been used to refer to the lineage or the bloodline of descendants linked to a common ancestry.